3D real-time graphics, rapidly moving particles and dangerous cyber attacks: it is all there.
The visualization system is called the "NICT Daedalus Cyber-attack alert system", where Daedalus stands for "Direct Alert Environment for Darknet and Livenet Unified Security." The system is specifically developed to observe large groups of computers for any suspicious activity, as it visualizes any suspected activity as it moves through the network.
According to the explanation in the video, watchable below, the sphere in the center represents the Internet, and the circles moving around it represent networks under current observation. The circles are actually also doughnut pie charts, of which the blue part corresponds with IP addresses that are used, and the black part are not used. Different character indicate alerts, which can be clicked to receive a more detailed description.
A similar system in use today is called Nicter ("Network Incident Analysis Center for Tactical Emergency Response"), which is specialized for the early detection and in-depth analysis of cyber-attacks.
Via diginfo.tv and Engadget. See also Visualizing a Security Attack on a VOIP Honeypot Server and DDOS Attack Visualization