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a collection of complex molecules represented by balloons, to illustrate that new research steps can be quickly visualised in this way. the authors claim that every chemical compound can be illustrated with balloon modeling, because the balloons automatically adjust every angle in a way that an atom according to modern atom models does. when 3 balloons meet at 1 knot (similar to the atomic nucleus), they "act just like a sp2-hybrid atom which means they form a planary system". when 4 balloons meet, they form a tetrahedral, & so on